With a unique vision of what constitutes comprehensive care, Dr. James Lin, a native of Southern California, returned to serve his community. As a third generation physician, Dr. Lin embarked on his path as an infertility specialist at the University of Southern California, where he completed a Bachelor’s degree in Chemistry. Upon graduating from USC, he furthered his studies by attending the Chicago Medical School. Dr. Lin’s subspecialty training began at the prestigious Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency at Saint Barnabas Medical Center, followed by the rigorous clinical and research-focused Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. To advance his understanding of conception at the cellular level, Dr. Lin conducted research in hormone and receptor interactions by examining follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors on developing ovarian follicles and estrogen receptors on reproductive tissues.
Dr. Lin’s expertise and dedication have brought RFC many wonderful patient responses. He has won the 2007 Star of RESOLVE Award, presented by RESOLVE, the National Infertility Association, the largest nonprofit organization concerning infertility. He was also the recipient of Patients’ Choice Award – California’s Favorite Doctor. Additionally, he was named Top Doctor by IE Magazine, the Best Doctor of Southern California by LA Times Magazine, and Super Doctors®.
Dr. Lin resides in Irvine, California with his family. He is happy to return to the city he grew up in. His favorite past times are sports, walking his dogs (a Newfoundland and two Yorkies), and spending time with his wife and children. Dr. Lin proudly supports the Irvine Public School Foundation, Irvine Ranch Little League, and In Vitro Foundation, among other charitable organizations. In addition to English, Dr. Lin speaks fluent Mandarin and Taiwanese.
Dr. Park, MD is a practicing Fertility Specialist with Reproductive Fertility Center. She attended MIT for her undergraduate studies in both Biology and Materials Science Engineering. After Doctor Park graduated from University of Texas Southwestern Medical School for her medical degree and continued her residency training in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Beth Israel Hospital in New York, she then completed her fellowship training in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at UC San Diego. Her passion is teaching and she has won many teaching awards throughout her educational career. Her interests include Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Diminished Ovarian Reserve, and Oncofertility. She is board certified in both Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. Dr. Park accepts multiple insurance plans including Aetna, Humana, and Cigna. In addition to English, Dr. Park’s practice supports these languages: Spanish and Korean.
Dr. Rosencrantz is a Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility specialist with Kaiser Permanente®. He attended the University of Nevada School of Medicine. He then furthered his medical training at the Obstetrics and Gynecology program at UC San Diego Medical Center. Dr. Rosencrantz was happy to stay at UC San Diego, where he completed his fellowship training in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. After completing his fellowship, Dr. Rosencrantz relocated to Orange County, where he joined Kaiser Permanente® as an infertility specialist.
Dr. Rosencrantz feels there is not a more rewarding field in medicine than Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility because he has the privilege to help patients either start or grow their family on a daily basis. This field presents many unique challenges, but Dr. Rosencrantz believes in meeting those challenges by providing the most comprehensive care.
Dr. Rosencrantz resides in Orange County with his wife, also a physician, and his children. His children are an inspiration to him and drive him to provide the best quality of care for his patients so they can too enjoy the joys of parenthood. Dr. Rosencrantz’s other passions include travel, exercise, sports, and reading.
Dr. Rubal joined Kaiser Permanente® Orange County after completing both her Obstetrics & Gynecology residency and Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship program at the prestigious University of Southern California. At USC’s prominent fellowship program, she was trained in advanced and cutting-edge assisted reproductive technology techniques and fertility surgeries, with an emphasis on diminished ovarian reserve and oncofertility. Her research focused on examining the effects of chemotherapy on the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior to her time in Southern California, Dr. Rubal was accepted to the competitive accelerated 6-year Honors Program in Medicine at the University of Miami (UM), where she obtained her B.S. in Biology along with her medical degree, and was elected into Iron Arrow Society, the highest honor at UM.
Dr. Rubal speaks fluent Spanish. She lives in Laguna Beach with her family and enjoys museums, beach activities, music, and traveling whenever possible.
Dr. Denise Murray graduated with a bachelor of science at University of Maryland. She attended medical school at the University of Maryland, and she completed her residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at George Washington University with accolades in gynecologic surgery. She finished her subspecialty training in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at the prestigious Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Murray is a specialist in tubal function, with a research focus on the effects of hydrosalpinx on infertility and IVF.
I am a native of Orange County, and feel so blessed to live in beautiful and sunny Southern California. I grew up in Irvine and attended college at the University of California, Irvine where I graduated with honors in the Biological Sciences, Phi beta kappa and cum laude. Thereafter, I attended medical school at the University of South Alabama, where I was vice president of my class and graduated in the top quartile of my class. I returned to California and did my Obstetrics and Gynecology residency at the University of Southern California (Go Trojans) and worked at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center where I spent my time helping the underserved. These 4 years were incredibly rewarding. I began treating couples with infertility and patients reproductive endocrine issues and knew that I wanted to continue my training in the field of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. I moved cross-country yet again, to New York City and completed a Fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility at Rutgers – New Jersey Medical School. As a resident and fellow, I was extensively involved in teaching medical students and other trainees as well as conducting both basic science and clinical research projects. During this time, I published articles related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Fertility preservation, Turner Syndrome, Fertility treatments, and the medical management of Fibroids.
Family and Friends give me energy and what fulfills me outside of work. I love to spend as much of my free time with my husband, daughter and family. We enjoy dining, going to the beach and park, hiking and traveling. I also love working out, and some of my favorite classes are Pilates and Barre.
Dr. Yang is one of the most respected experts in pre-implantation genetic screening research in the world. He has been both a professor and director of IVF techniques and laboratories for over 30 years. In addition to performing thousands of cases over the course of his career as an embryologist, his major academic achievements include the study “Pioneering Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) with Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (zCGHY’ and Pioneering Identification of Protein Markers for In Vitro Maturation (IVM) of Bovine and Human Oocytes.” In addition, Dr. Yang is first author/main investigator of 14 published scientific articles, and 17 presentations in national and international conferences for assisted reproductive technologies.
Dr. Yang is currently the Scientific Director at Reproductive Fertility Center where he works closely with Dr. Lin in applying the latest genetic screening technologies which help to decrease miscarriage rates and increase pregnancy rates, and continuing research to improve pregnancy success rates.
Dr. Yang resides in Orange County, California, and enjoys traveling and spending time with family and friends.
Paul Lee is an Embryologist for Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC). He obtained his BSc MD from the Peking University Health Science Center (PUHSC) and a BSc double major in Chemistry and Computer Science from the University of Victoria (UVIC).
In his role as Embryologist, Paul values utilizing his skills to complete the needs of his clients to achieve pregnancy and delivery. Because his job requires technical skills, Paul excels in his performance to meet the evidence based protocols established, and cutting edge technology and equipment to achieve the satisfaction of meeting the end goal of successful pregnancies for his clients.
Paul appreciates the team atmosphere at RFC, and being a “people-person” allows for him to work within various roles at RFC. He embraces the fact that he can rely on others and have that experience reciprocated, which creates a mutual bond that is instrumental in team growth and success.
For leisure, Paul participates in hiking, light body building, and swimming. He is an avid movie goer and prides himself in getting to see about 95% of the movies (“save the exaggerated love stories”). Within his scope of goals are travels to exotic places and all things new in technology, which he follows to the minute. Paul relaxes by playing guitar, violin, piano, and singing.
With a profound interest and pull toward the fields of science and medicine, and double degrees in both Chemistry and Psychology from University of California, Michelle became an integral part of the Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) team in 2010.
Her leadership skills, evident in her various roles at RFC, have been in development since her years in college, where she was actively involved in campus organizations, held student-body leadership positions, and gained managerial work experiences. Being able to fulfill such a vast array of leadership roles, and continuing to succeed in field of fertility, have provided Michelle the skills that make up the foundation of her sound and undeterred professionalism and managerial capabilities.
Born in Taiwan, but raised in the United States, Michelle has the best of all worlds in understanding the cultural differences between the two countries, and is able to bridge the nuances of each culture by demonstrating confidence in her ability to meet with, talk to, and educate both American and Chinese/Non-American patients. She shares, “exposure to both culture differences have helped me become more sensitive and accepting of other cultures.”
In describing what she enjoys most about the field of reproductive medicine, Michelle recalls the joy and pivotal moments when she realized how much she loved her job as the time she was able to witness the joy and relief displayed by a newly pregnant couple at hearing the heartbeat of their baby for the first time during their first ultrasound visit.
When not making dreams of family come true at RFC, Michelle is the proud “mom” of her six-year-old Dachshund, Mr. Bentley Wang. She enjoys spending time with her family, friends, and dog, and on some weekends, lounging at home with family and friends watching drama marathons.
With more than 15 years experience in the field, Fawn has contributed to helping the Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) team and its patients who come for infertility treatment- providing excellent patient care with a driven work ethic. Fawn’s role in supporting and providing a kind ear to patients is what yields the positive atmosphere of care and concern at RFC.
Fawn has had the privilege of learning the ins and outs of the infertility field by adapting to various roles such as New Patient Coordinator, Financial & Insurance Coordinator, Marketing and Management.; thus gaining expertise knowledge in RFC operations. She has not only grown professionally, but also continues to grow personally with the life lessons she has acquired here. RFC is proud to have Fawn as the Office Manager overseeing our exceptional staff and patients.
As a single mother of four children, Fawn enjoys spending her time with her kids at the beach. She has become an avid supporter of oceanic life and supports the cleanliness and protection of beaches. Staying healthy and enjoying the outdoors gives Fawn a well-rounded sense of being and enjoyment.
Lauren has been a dedicated employee at Reproductive Fertility Center for nearly 14 years. Throughout her time with the Center, Lauren has gained extensive experience working in both the back office and the operating room (which she thoroughly loved). With her many years of experience in the infertility field, Lauren eventually began coordinating IVF and IUI cycles for our patients. She excelled as a clinical coordinator and developed a global view of the infertility field, making her the perfect individual to be our new patient coordinator. Lauren is an indispensable member of our team, doing everything from setting appointments, to providing financial consultation to patients, and answering any and all questions related to the infertility process from start to finish. We are proud to recognize Lauren as RFC’s Assistant Manager.
The idea that the RFC team is helping patients start their families or grow an existing family, is the most rewarding aspect of Lauren’s job. Gratification comes to Lauren upon hearing that her patients are pregnant. She finds great comfort and honor in knowing that RFC patients are at ease with the staff and their physician, making the experience even more rewarding.
Lauren understands that there are limitations in medicine that don’t allow for guarantees and pregnancy will elude a number of patients. In her diverse background, she has been able to work with and help patients seeking to preserve their eggs due to a cancer diagnosis. Being limited by the ability for their bodies to conceive, these patients understand the challenging journey and find alternatives to make parenthood a reality. One hope that Lauren holds on to is the further advancements in reproductive medicine that will make it possible for more patients to achieve successful and safe pregnancies.
As someone that has seen the RFC team grow and develop, Lauren knows one thing for sure – “the best part of what we do is that we are all doing it together, as a team, a family”. She shares that everyone on the RFC staff genuinely cares about the patients and their success. The bond between the staff members is unbreakable and it “feels like having the type of family you never knew you needed or wanted”. Lauren is grateful every single day of her life to be surrounded by such an amazing group of people that have influenced her in innumerable positive ways. A day does not go by that she is not excited to come to work, a sentiment few people can express. She prides herself in being part of such a unique and caring center that works extremely hard at achieving the maximum number of successful pregnancies possible for their patients.
Lauren is married to her amazing husband, Greg, whom she married in Maui almost five years ago. Together they have a son, Charlie, age 3 and have recently welcomed a beautiful baby girl, Ella, to the family. Their four-legged family member is Dolce, a sweet Golden Retriever. Lauren enjoys going to the beach, a regular pastime for this beach family. Although they would love to travel more, especially out of the country, Lauren and her family are happy to call Maui their home away from home, visiting every summer or any other chance they get.
With over 10 years of experience in the field of infertility and 6 years with RFC under her belt, Cindy Anderson brings a solid background of knowledge and skills to the Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) team. Cindy currently serves RFC as a Nurse Practitioner. Additionally, she specializes in third party reproduction, which is fertility treatments involving donors and/or surrogates.
If Cindy’s educational background isn’t an indication of her love and passion for the care of others, it would be difficult to understand what else it could be. Her undergraduate studies with concentration in Maternal Child Health, Cum Laude from California State University, Long Beach, demonstrate her passion and dedication to this field were clear from the start. She continued on to obtain her Certificate Degree: Women’s Health Care Nurse Practitioner from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and her Masters of Science in Nursing with a Concentration in Women’s Health from California State University, Long Beach as well. Her career was launched immediately upon graduation leading her to practice her skills as a Nurse Practitioner at Hoag Hospital, and now at Reproductive Fertility Center.
“The journey to conception as a result of infertility is a stressful one,” shares Cindy. Gratification of her work with her patients is in knowing that she is part of the journey with them and that the end result will undoubtedly bring immeasurable reward. Comparison of the stress innate to infertility has been compared to that experienced by cancer patients. The successes of pregnancy through infertility treatments from the point of view of an infertility nurse have brought Cindy tears of joy and tears of disappointment, yet she states that “she would never change her job.”
Cindy sees the most challenging aspect of her role as the inability to send every patient home with the knowledge that they too will be going home with a baby. For as much as is given in treatment, care, alternatives and options, there are scientific limitations to achieving successful pregnancies for some couples. This is devastating not only to the patients, but to the RFC team that so desperately wants to make it happen.
Working at RFC is like being with a second family for Cindy. She loves the people she works with and feels supported and cared for through the emotional and stressful aspects of her work. The help she receives from her co-workers is what makes her job the absolute best.
Married for 10 years, Cindy is the mom to three, beautiful boys and a German Shepherd. She loves her role as a mom and spending time with her boys. Cindy enjoys traveling and wants to see the world. Fortunate to have a close relationship with her parents, Cindy is thankful for the help and involvement her supportive parents provide her and the boys. Outside of family, Cindy likes spending time with friends, going to the movies and working out.
One of the newest members of the Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) team is Heidi Ozaeta. Although she just joined RFC in September 2015, Heidi is certainly not new to the infertility field. She has over 10 years of experience as a Nurse Practitioner in the field of infertility. Prior to joining RFC, her expertise was focused on being a Labor and Delivery Nurse for more than 5 years. She is excited to be part of the wonderful and well-established practice at RFC.
When asked what she enjoys most about this field, Heidi shares – “I love helping patients fulfill their dreams of having a family”. She feels fortunate to be part of “one of the most special times in a couple’s life” and counts her blessings to be able to see the joy that so many families experience.
The challenges that infertility brings is the hardest part of the job for Heidi. She recognizes that there will be unsuccessful cycles and strives to provide the empathy and support needed by the couples during those difficult times. Understanding that infertility “can be a rollercoaster” with respect to the physical, mental and emotional aspects of treatment, Heidi sees her role as someone that will provide the encouragement needed to continue moving forward. “It is a privilege to be part of my patient’s lives during this time, says Heidi. Helping them get through the steps to achieve their ultimate goal of pregnancy is an important part of her role.
Since joining RFC, Heidi sees and values the level of care that both the doctor’s and support staff genuinely bring to the care of their patients. She sees the team as friendly and supportive.
Heidi is married and spends her time with her husband and two boys, David (8) and Daniel (5). They enjoy activities such as watching movies, baseball games and going to Disneyland.
Currently the Manager and Senior Coordinator for the satellite offices at Reproductive Fertility Center, Jennifer Cook has had the unique opportunity of being one of the first staff members since its inception. With a background as a Medical Assistant, Jennifer entered the infertility field after a series of roles in a variety of other capacities. After graduating in 1987, she began an internship at an Obstetrics/Gynecology office. Shortly thereafter, Jennifer switched gears and entered the field of Geriatrics. She truly loved the chance to work in Geriatrics, but at only 18 years of age, she found that it was difficult to continue in a field where so many of her patients passed away.
An opportunity to return to Obstetrics/Gynecology presented itself to Jennifer and she was finding this to be a better, more suitable fit again. Her skills were utilized in billing, medical, the scheduling of surgeries, cosmetic procedures, perinatology, skin rejuvenation and infertility. As luck would have it, one of the nurse practitioners in the OB/GYN office was launching a fertility program in the office and Jennifer seized the opportunity to team up with the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) specialist to assist in the initial evaluation, testing, workup and IUI cycles for their patients. This new venture was exciting and progressive, making Jennifer extremely comfortable in working with the fertility team and patients.
Challenged by her own infertility issues, Jennifer experienced a difficult time of her own attempting to conceive. With the help and support of the team she worked with, she was able to successfully attain pregnancy and her daughter is now 21 years old.
Jennifer met Dr. James Lin through the work at the OB/GYN office and decided to join his team after 12 years with the former group. She continued to train in the field of fertility and has seen the progression of advances in the treatment of infertility for over 25 years. In her opinion, “it only gets better and better”.
What Jennifer shared as her most memorable experience to date is the invitation she received to see one of RFC’s “miracle” babies born to C-section several years ago. She has maintained contact with the couple that invited her and has watched the baby grow into a beautiful young woman. The field of infertility consists of up and downs – emotionally, financially and physically. But being able to be by the couple’s side, being able to comfort and educate them and simply listening to them during their experience is what gives Jennifer the most gratification. The best part of her role shares Jennifer, “is the ability to see our patient’s family grow”.
Although infertility advances have brought successes to thousands of couples, Jennifer still finds it difficult to reconcile the unexplained reasons why some treatments are successful and others are not. Those that can identify the issues have the opportunity for closure, while those that will never know are left with a void of uncertainty. This is the area of infertility that challenges and perplexes Jennifer the most.
Jennifer sees her life as a being part of the RFC “family” from the very beginning. The trust, compassion and support that RFC has extended to her and her family has been instrumental in being able to continue in the face of adversity. Her unsurpassed devotion to the efforts of bringing joy and fulfillment to the RFC patients stems from the underlying goal that RFC has for all those patients that seek their help. She has fond memories of watching the RFC family children grow and mature into productive, compassionate adults in their own rite.
Jennifer Cook is the proud mother of three children that she shares with her loving husband. Other family members include a Doberman named Diesel, a Chihuahua named Cinnabun, along with two cats named Rascal and Binky, a snake and fish. She enjoys sewing, crafting, going to the movies, being outdoors and sharing time with family and friends.
Coordinating IVF cycles has been Paula Hagen’s role for many years. She brought over 10 years of experience in this capacity when she joined Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC).
Being part of the RFC team has been a wonderful experience for Paula. Her role in helping couples achieve the successes of becoming a “family” has brought her great joy. “To call someone and tell them they are pregnant has to be the best part of my role”, shares Paula. Changing their lives with this uplifting news is what makes her role most gratifying.
The field of reproductive medicine is equal to so many other fields in medicine in that not all attempts at attaining success with treatments is realized. There are challenges and Paula realizes that the phone call to share the wonderful news of successful pregnancy is one side of the coin. There are times when she is not able to make that call to share exciting news with her patients. Even with science and technology allowing for leaps in successes with infertility treatments, the science also reveals the downside of embryos that are less than ideal to use. Having to make the call to her patients to deliver the news of unhealthy embryos is sometimes more difficult than making the call to tell them they are not pregnant. Paula understands that although these challenges are innate to the field of reproductive medicine, she can account for there being successes for many couples.
Being part of the RFC team has been by far Paula’s favorite role in her career. She sees the team more as a family unit than as a group of employees. The support and feelings of care and love felt for each other at RFC is infectious and is felt universally. It is not uncommon to hear patients say, “It’s like a family here”.
Paula fills her “away from work” time with her husband and her boys. She enjoys daily exercise, walking, hiking and travelling. Watching football and baseball is a family pastime that isn’t often missed. Her current plans include training her family’s new lab to be a therapy dog. Recently she had an opportunity to experience this wonderful gift by therapy dogs when her husband was hospitalized and she would love to pay it forward.
A valued staff member of the Reproductive Fertility Center team since August 2009, LeahAnne Bruce has been an integral part of the infertility side of Obstetrics and Gynecology for nearly 20 years. As RFC’s 3rd Party Coordinator, LeahAnne handles the challenges innate to bridging infertility and successful pregnancies. Her determination and drive to help couples in their attempts to start families is what makes her a “cheerleader, hand-holder, counselor and medical professional” of stellar caliber. Undeterred by the disappointment that comes with infertility, LeahAnne utilizes her experience and positive outlook in recognizing that her patients come in with the perseverance needed to successfully accomplish the goal of growing their family unit. When asked about the most memorable experiences of her role, LeahAnne shares, “When we are successful in helping patients realize their dream of a new baby, it becomes the most memorable and rewarding part of my job”.
From LeahAnne’s perspective, the most challenging and limiting aspects of the infertility field is the emotional element of the experience. Her patients arrive with hope and fear and it’s her role to encourage them to be optimistic about the outcome that lies ahead. Limitations in science and obtaining 100% success rates is not yet feasible. With the support of LeahAnne and her co-workers, every effort is exhausted in ensuring that the couples leave with the success they seek.
LeahAnne attributes her favorite part of her role as being the ability to work with “the dedicated, upbeat and hardworking staff and doctors at RFC”. She has been able to perform her role at various other centers and recognizes that the doctors and staff at RFC share her own personal goal of striving for the success of achieving successful pregnancies for their patients. The RFC team has taught LeahAnne the value of “teamwork and diversification leading to the excitement and pleasure to come to work each day”.
In her own personal accomplishments, LeahAnne is pleased to share her life with a wonderful husband, three children and 2 grandchildren. As one of ten children in her family, LeahAnne is fulfilled by many happy and fun-filled events and activities. With her own children now grown, she enjoys spending time with her husband doing the things they both enjoy doing together such as traveling (when they can) and going to the movies. LeahAnne enjoys reading and catching up with friends and family whenever possible.
Coming from the service industry, Janelle Chun brought the skills needed to work with people from all walks of life. Her role at Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) reflects that capacity and is what has made Janelle an indispensable asset to the team.
In transitioning to the infertility field, Janelle applied the philosophy that “everyone has a story” and that the journey to having a family allows the RFC team to become part of that story for their patients. With her natural inclination to liking people, Janelle emits this joy and care in her daily interactions both with co-workers and especially with her patients. A reflection of her infectious care is evident in the friendships and relationships that she develops with those that she comes in contact with, whether in her personal life or work life. Janelle was bestowed the highest honor when a patient named her daughter after Janelle as a result of their blossoming relationship.
As is true with medical technology, infertility is limited by yet-to-be-discovered scientific advances and a guarantee of successful pregnancy for all that seek it is not always feasible. This leaves Janelle burdened by the greatest challenge in infertility treatment – the unsuccessful attempts at biological conception. Some patients are able to seek alternatives to carrying a full-term pregnancy or allow for the assistance of surrogacy. However, limited by religious or cultural restrictions, some patients opt to end their treatment when the course yields continual negative results from the use of their own egg and sperm. The end of their dream leaves Janelle saddened by their choice.
But the journey does continue for so many others and that is the experience that Janelle sees as the most rewarding. Being included as a member of what feels like a family, she thanks Dr. Lin and Grace for spearheading the sense that they are all in this together – like families are. In a field that is dominated by females, Janelle never imagined “being able to work with so many females and get along so well with each one of them”. Like all families, disagreements exist, but somehow they manage to get passed the moments that challenge them and move on to the core values that make them a true team. Janelle has learned to depend on others to get things done and count on others to help her each and every day, freeing her from feeling that she has to do it all.
An after school program in Medical Assistance gave Rosio Zambrano the background she needed to launch her into the field of reproductive medicine. While in high school, Rosio gained experience and was hired to work the front office at Reproductive Fertility Center (RFC) once she completed her high school education. She has been with the group ever since and has had an opportunity to learn the ins and outs of the daily activities at RFC. Her fluency in Spanish has also been a tremendous help on those occasions when clients are in need of additional help in understanding the treatments they are undergoing.